Cosmogorical

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Blinded Me With Science

(I cannot vouch for the validity of this article, the source looks iffy, and the writer had lots of grammatical errors, I fixed, but I found it fascinating.)

HISTORIC DISCOVERY: Physicists ‘PROVE’ God DIDN’T create the Universe

A TEAM of scientists have made what may turn out to be the most important discovery in HISTORY – how the universe came into being from nothing.

By PAUL BALDWIN EXCLUSIVE

The colossal question has troubled religions, philosophers and scientists since the dawn of time but now a Canadian team believe they have solved the riddle.

And the findings are so conclusive they even challenge the need for religion, or at least an omnipotent creator – the basis of all world religions.

Scientists have long known that minuscule particles, called virtual particles, come into existence from nothing all the time.

But a team led by Prof Mir Faizal, at the Dept. of Physics and Astronomy, at the University of Waterloo, in Ontario, Canada, has successfully applied the theory to the very creation of existence itself.

Enter ‘inflation’ theory.

Prof Mir used some mind-boggling mathematics and two recent theories:

  • The Minimum Length Scale – a measurement so infinitesimally small that space and time cease to exist.
  • Doubly Special Relativity – which takes advantage of the massive energies available just after the birth of the universe.

Under Inflation Theory the tiny energies and lifespan of the virtual particle become infinitely magnified, resulting in our 13.8 Billion-year-old universe.

Just to make things more complicated Dr. Mir says we have been looking at the question ‘how did the universe come from nothing?’ all wrong.

According to the extraordinary findings, the question is irrelevant because the universe STILL is nothing.

Dr. Mir said: “Something did not come from nothing. The universe still is nothing, it’s just more elegantly ordered nothing.”

He added that the negative gravitational energy of the universe and the positive matter energy of the universe basically balanced out and created a zero sum.

Asked if the remarkable findings and the convincing if complex solution removed the need for a God figure to kick start the universe Dr. Mir said: “If by God you mean a supernatural super man who breaks his own laws then yes he’s done for, you just don’t need him.

“But if you mean God as a great mathematician, then yes!”

What Prof. Mir was referring to is known as inflation. According to inflation the total positive energy in the form of matter exactly balances the negative energy in form of gravity, such that the total energy of our universe is still zero.

Prof. Mir – who also works on the Large Hadron Collider at CERN in Switzerland – further explained that by “nothing” he only meant absence of energy, and not the absence of laws of physics.

He said that for him the physics in space and time was only an approximation to some purely mathematical theory describing nature, and so space and time, and all the structure in it should be produced as a consequence of some purely mathematical theory.

Prof Mir said: “The story starts with laws of quantum mechanics, where the energy of a system at any given time known with absolute certainly. So, basically we cannot also state that a system has zero energy as that would be amount to specifying an exact amount of energy at a given time.

“This uncertainty which occurs due to quantum mechanics can lead to the creation of small amount of energy from nothing as long as it exists only for a very small amount of time. Such particle created out of nothing are called virtual particles. The consequences of the existence of such virtual particles has been tested experimentally.

“The problem with this explanation is that such virtual particles can only have a small amount of energy for a very small amount of time.

“To get a universe the size of our universe from such small amount of energy, a theory called inflation is used.

“According to inflation the small amount of energy created from nothing underwent a rapid expansion, resulting in the formation of the universe as we see it today. During this time, the positive energy in the matter of the universe and negative energy in form of gravity was created such that they exactly balanced each other. The total energy of the universe still being zer0.

“Even though inflation has been studied before, recently it has been studied using a new theory called doubly special relativity.

“According to doubly special relativity there is a maximum energy and no particle in the universe can attain an energy greater than that energy.

“Just as Einstein’s theory of relativity reduces to Newton’s theory for low velocities, doubly special relativity reduces to Einstein’s theory of relativity for low enough energies.”

He added: “Just as we do not observe any effect from Einstein’s theory of relativity for objects traveling slowly, we do not observe any effect from doubly special relativity even for particles at low energies.

“This maximum energy (Planck energy) is so large that even the particle at the LHC can be considered to possess low enough energies compared to it.

“However, the energy at the beginning of the universe is large enough to consider the effects coming from doubly special relativity.”

The team of three scientists,  Ahmed Farag Ali, Mir Faizal and Mohammed M. Khalil analyzed inflation using doubly special relativity and their findings have now been published in the prestigious Journal of Cosmology and Astroparticle Physics (JCAP).

They also combined doubly special relativity with a theoretical minimum length scale in nature. It has been suggested by many scientists that the nature should have a minimum length scale.

Prof. Mir added: “This means if you divide a stick into half, you cannot continue this process indefinitely. As you will come across a length scale below which space does not exist.

“This length is also so small that it is usually neglected by scientists when studding most phenomena.

“But it cannot be neglected when the beginning of the universe. The effect of the existence of this minimum length on inflation had been studied before by Brian Greene (Author of the famous book Elegant Universe).

“However, this is the first time that inflation has been studied by combining the doubly special relativity with the existence of a minimum length scale in nature.”

See Article for lots of hyperlinks, pictures, and video’s.

 

Parallel Universes Interact

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New Theory Proposes Parallel Universes Interact With And Affect Our Own Universe

Physics-Astronomy

By Umer Abrar

The theory of parallel universes has been illustrated repeatedly in science fiction, without any actual proof that they really exist. Howard Wiseman of Griffith University in Australia directed a group that believes quantum theory permits for multiple forms of our universe to happen and even interact with one another in the quantum realm. Michael Hall is the chief author of the paper, issued in the journal Physical Review X. Learning the nuances of quantum theory can get very complicated, as things act different to what would be projected from normal matter. Quantum states of a structure are supposed to concurrently occur in all imaginable formations until an observer forces it to implement one state.

In the mid of 20th century, the ‘Many Worlds’ theory initially guessed that multiple forms of reality branch out from one another as separate entities surviving in separate positions, lacking any interaction with each other. According to this new theory; all of these endless multiple universes overlap and inhabit the similar section of time and space concurrently, exactly like a quantum state.

Wiseman, in a press release, said “All possibilities are therefore realized – in some universes the dinosaur-killing asteroid missed Earth. In others, Australia was colonized by the Portuguese. But critics question the reality of these other universes, since they do not influence our universe at all. On this score, our “Many Interacting Worlds” approach is completely different, as its name implies.” According to this new explanation, certain realms in parallel universes would be approximately duplicate. But in others, the “Butterfly Effect” is accountable for totally different conclusions. Each universe is correspondingly real; it isn’t like that one universe is the reality whereas others are bizarre duplicates or slighter in any way. Wiseman also considers that the quantum forces accountable for motivating this mutual existence are also accountable for initiating quantum interactions among the worlds. Likeness between worlds interrelates through quantum forces, which affects the result of the world by constructing them faintly different. However the theory also states that these worlds interact with one another only on the quantum realm and not on a bigger scale, Wiseman also considers the theory does not prevent that option, either.  Wiseman said “The beauty of our approach is that if there is just one world our theory reduces to Newtonian mechanics, while if there is a gigantic number of worlds it reproduces quantum mechanics. In between it predicts something new that is neither Newton’s theory nor quantum theory. We also believe that, in providing a new mental picture of quantum effects, it will be useful in planning experiments to test and exploit quantum phenomena.” Reply from the physics community has been mixed. Luboš Motl described Wiseman’s study as “a miserable enterprise and a huge waste of time.” On the other hand Charles Sebens from the University of Michigan is more aligned with Wiseman’s concept. By means of a different track of thinking, he approached to a very parallel decision and told Nature: “They give very nice analyses of particular phenomena like ground-state energy and quantum tunneling.”

Obviously, the big problem now is defining how Wiseman’s concepts can be tested and how to identify quantum deviations that might specify contacts with another world.

Article

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I highly recommend reading all links in the original article.

On a personal note, school is going even better than expected. The solution a new instructor, well he is Angel sent. I think it is going to workout. Much love all~

~Namaste~

Flat Universe

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Shine On You Crazy Diamond

Presented by

Robert Adler

BBC

People have wrestled with the mystery of why the universe exists for thousands of years. Pretty much every ancient culture came up with its own creation story – most of them leaving the matter in the hands of the gods – and philosophers have written reams on the subject. But science has had little to say about this ultimate question.

However, in recent years a few physicists and cosmologists have started to tackle it. They point out that we now have an understanding of the history of the universe, and of the physical laws that describe how it works. That information, they say, should give us a clue about how and why the cosmos exists.

Their admittedly controversial answer is that the entire universe, from the fireball of the Big Bang to the star-studded cosmos we now inhabit, popped into existence from nothing at all. It had to happen, they say, because “nothing” is inherently unstable.

This idea may sound bizarre, or just another fanciful creation story. But the physicists argue that it follows naturally from science’s two most powerful and successful theories: quantum mechanics and general relativity.

Here, then, is how everything could have come from nothing.

Particles from empty space

First we have to take a look at the realm of quantum mechanics. This is the branch of physics that deals with very small things: atoms and even tinier particles. It is an immensely successful theory, and it underpins most modern electronic gadgets.

Quantum mechanics tells us that there is no such thing as empty space. Even the most perfect vacuum is actually filled by a roiling cloud of particles and antiparticles, which flare into existence and almost instantaneously fade back into nothingness.

These so-called virtual particles don’t last long enough to be observed directly, but we know they exist by their effects.

Space-time, from no space and no time

From tiny things like atoms, to really big things like galaxies. Our best theory for describing such large-scale structures is general relativity, Albert Einstein’s crowning achievement, which sets out how space, time and gravity work.

Relativity is very different from quantum mechanics, and so far nobody has been able to combine the two seamlessly. However, some theorists have been able to bring the two theories to bear on particular problems by using carefully chosen approximations. For instance, this approach was used by Stephen Hawking at the University of Cambridge to describe black holes.

“In quantum physics, if something is not forbidden, it necessarily happens”

One thing they have found is that, when quantum theory is applied to space at the smallest possible scale, space itself becomes unstable. Rather than remaining perfectly smooth and continuous, space and time destabilize, churning and frothing into a foam of space-time bubbles.

In other words, little bubbles of space and time can form spontaneously. “If space and time are quantized, they can fluctuate,” says Lawrence Krauss at Arizona State University in Tempe. “So you can create virtual space-times just as you can create virtual particles.”

What’s more, if it’s possible for these bubbles to form, you can guarantee that they will. “In quantum physics, if something is not forbidden, it necessarily happens with some non-zero probability,” says Alexander Vilenkin of Tufts University in Boston, Massachusetts.

A universe from a bubble

So it’s not just particles and antiparticles that can snap in and out of nothingness: bubbles of space-time can do the same. Still, it seems like a big leap from an infinitesimal space-time bubble to a massive universe that hosts 100 billion galaxies. Surely, even if a bubble formed, it would be doomed to disappear again in the blink of an eye?

If all the galaxies are flying apart, they must once have been close together

Actually, it is possible for the bubble to survive. But for that we need another trick: cosmic inflation.

Most physicists now think that the universe began with the Big Bang. At first all the matter and energy in the universe was crammed together in one unimaginably small dot, and this exploded. This follows from the discovery, in the early 20th century that the universe is expanding. If all the galaxies are flying apart, they must once have been close together.

Inflation theory proposes that in the immediate aftermath of the Big Bang, the universe expanded much faster than it did later. This seemingly outlandish notion was put forward in the 1980s by Alan Guth at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, and refined by Andrei Linde, now at Stanford University.

As weird as it seems, inflation fits the facts

The idea is that, a fraction of a second after the Big Bang, the quantum-sized bubble of space expanded stupendously fast. In an incredibly brief moment, it went from being smaller than the nucleus of an atom to the size of a grain of sand. When the expansion finally slowed, the force field that had powered it was transformed into the matter and energy that fill the universe today. Guth calls inflation “the ultimate free lunch”.

As weird as it seems, inflation fits the facts rather well. In particular, it neatly explains why the cosmic microwave background, the faint remnant of radiation left over from the Big Bang, is almost perfectly uniform across the sky. If the universe had not expanded so rapidly, we would expect the radiation to be patchier than it is.

The universe is flat and why that’s important

Inflation also gave cosmologists the measuring tool they needed to determine the underlying geometry of the universe. It turns out this is also crucial for understanding how the cosmos came from nothing.

Einstein’s theory of general relativity tells us that the space-time we live in could take three different forms. It could be as flat as a table top. It could curve back on itself like the surface of a sphere, in which case if you travel far enough in the same direction you would end up back where you started. Alternatively, space-time could curve outward like a saddle. So which is it?

There is a way to tell. You might remember from maths class that the three angles of a triangle add up to exactly 180 degrees. Actually your teachers left out a crucial point: this is only true on a flat surface. If you draw a triangle on the surface of a balloon, its three angles will add up to more than 180 degrees. Alternatively, if you draw a triangle on a surface that curves outward like a saddle, its angles will add up to less than 180 degrees.

So to find out if the universe is flat, we need to measure the angles of a really big triangle. That’s where inflation comes in. It determined the average size of the warmer and cooler patches in the cosmic microwave background. Those patches were measured in 2003, and that gave astronomers a selection of triangles. As a result, we know that on the largest observable scale our universe is flat.

Read the rest here at BBC

Namaste

Sindy

 . *✿ღ✿ღ.¸¸

Snowflake

Snowflakes photographed under a Scanning Electron Microscope

Snowflakes photographed under a Scanning Electron Microscope.

Source

✿*• .¸¸.`•´¯✿

Final Draft for my research paper on The Great Gatsby done. This paper is so….not what it could have been. I never received by book from Amazon I needed, so I just did it. Looking at my Transcript last night I saw that I have been on The Dean’s list for the last three semesters. That was sort of a confidence booster but we shall see once I get to the university, and not community college. 😉

My angel cards have been pretty accurate. I kept seeing a change in employment, I was just like yeah, yeah…anyways my boss offered me a promotion. That was cool. I did receive my “Love and Math” book. Pretty interesting writing. I will probably share about that soon. Plus I never recreated my lost post on Gatsby. Oh well, I may have to let that go.

It’s pretty chilly here in the Valley of the Sun, so I know it must be cold for many of you. Burrrrrrrr…Stay warm. I love the cold. Put my Christmas Tree up already and really enjoying it.

Still watching ISON and find it fascinating and deep.

Remembering Nelson Mandela~

Music

Namaste

*•..¸ƸӜƷ ✿ღ ✫❀

Sindy

 

ISON

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Music

A brief but important detour from Gatsby. Unless you have been under a rock you are aware of comet ISON and it’s big sling around the Sun tomorrow on Thanksgiving. I read in one article that comet ISON could be the brightest thing in the sky since the birth of Christ.

It certainly feels to me like a huge herald of change. Now that may seen superstitious to a scientific mind, but I am of a symbolic mind, so to me it is a huge sign. Some have called it Worwood from the Bible, some have called it Nibiru, but I call it ISON. I was telling my sister, how very interesting I found its name to be, and that I am sure it was an anagram, which it is, but to me, there are no coincidences.

Credit for Comet ISON’s name goes to its discovers: Vitali Nevski and Artyom Novinchonok. It bears the name of their night-sky survey program, the International Scientific Optical Network. ISON is a group of observatories in ten countries which have organized to detect, monitor, and track objects in space. Source

I SON~ Interesting as so many say now is the time of the return of Christ. I am not a firm believer of things from a Biblical point of view, but a return of Christ Consciousness, A new age, I am all for that. Whatever it means, which could be nothing, it means something to me. I feel change, positive and good. I am excited to continue my venture as an Earth human, and excited to see us transform into more loving beings.

Can’t wait to see if ISON beats its odds against that giant star, our life giving Sun.

***************************ISON UPDATE TO THE UPDATE:

STOCKHOLM (AP) — A comet that gained an earthly following because of its bright tail visible from space was initially declared dead after essentially grazing the sun. Now, there is a sliver of hope that Comet ISON may have survived.

http://www.usatoday.com/story/news/nation/2013/11/29/did-comet-ison-survive/3781669/

*************ISON UPDATE:

Despite there being great hope for Comet ISON, it appears it disappeared behind the Sun today never to emerge again. Comet ISON has been destroyed by the intense heat and activity of our star, the Sun.
Thanks for being a visitor to http://www.cometison2013.co.uk

http://www.nbcnews.com/science/will-comet-ison-beat-odds-watch-superstars-climactic-scene-2D11660611

http://www.learning-mind.com/comet-of-the-century-promises-once-in-a-life-spectacle/

http://www.cometison2013.co.uk/perihelion-and-distance/

Let there be peace on Earth and let it begin with me.

Namaste

✿ღ✿ღ.¸¸ღ♫*¨`*•..¸ƸӜƷ ✿ღ ✫❀•❤٠·˙✿

Sindy

Black Holes

“Some Black Holes Existed Prior to the Big Bang”

July 14, 2012

Cosmologists have begun to think seriously about processes that occurred before the Big Bang. Alan Coley from Canada’s Dalhousie University and Bernard Carr from Queen Mary University in London, have theorized that some so-called primordial black holes might have been created in the Big Crunch that came before the Big Bang, which supports the theory that the Big Bang was not a single event, but one that occurs over and over again as the Universe crunches down to a single point, then blows up again.

In some circumstances, they say, black holes of a certain mass could avoid this fate and survive the crunch as separate entities. The masses for which this is possible range from a few hundred million kilograms to about the mass of our Sun.

The theory is based on the fact that the Earth, and the rest of the known Universe is occasionally bombarded with unexplained bursts of gamma rays — something that could, according to Coley and Carr, be the result of primordial black holes running out of energy and disintegrating. These small black holes ought to evaporate away in relatively short period of time, finally disappearing in a violent explosion of gamma rays. Some cosmologists say this thinking might explain the gamma ray bursts that we already see from time to time.

Primordial black holes are thought to be of a different type than the regular kind that are formed when a supernova occurs but rather formed in the first “moments” after the Big Bang. Primordial black holes would be smaller and created by the energy of the Big Bang itself and would then have been widely dispersed as the Universe expanded.

More information: Persistence of black holes through a cosmological bounce, B. J. Carr, A.A. Coley, arXiv:1104.3796v1 [astro-ph.CO] http://arxiv.org/abs/1104.3796

The Daily Galaxy via MIT Technology Review

Image credit: http://www.zeitnews.org/space-science/scientists-gear-up-to-take-a-picture-of-a-black-hole.html and University of Arizona

 

Dark Side Of The Sun

Well, no, there’s no actual dark side of a luminous ball of burning gas, but there is an effective dark side, as in, the side of the sun we can’t see at any given time.

Scientists aren’t content to get just half of the picture, so they’ve launched the STEREO (Solar Terrestrial Relations Observatories) mission, a pair of NASA spacecraft that will orbit the sun simultaneously to provide a complete view of all sides of the star at once.

“Then there will be no place to hide and we can see the entire sun for the first time,” STEREO project scientist Michael Kaiser of NASA’s Goddard Space Flight Center told Wired.com.

The perfect spherical view will come on Feb. 6, 2011. Right now the satellites, which were launched in October 2006, are about 90 degrees apart, which allows a picture of about 270 degrees of the sun — the fullest view yet.

“The whole goal of all of this is to try to get a better handle to try to predict solar storms, which cause cell phone disturbances, and disruptions to communications and power.” Kaiser said. “We’d like to be able to predict these things as far in advance as possible to give us a longer warning time.”

Solar storms are magnetic disruptions on the sun that release violent sprays of charged particles into space. These storms can produce magnificent displays of the Northern Lights. But some past storms have also cost airlines and satellite communications industries millions of dollars, and have led to large scale power blackouts (including one across the entire province of Quebec, Canada). Being able to reliably forecast these tempests in advance could make a huge difference in preventing disturbances on Earth.

Predicting solar weather is also important for the future of manned spaceflight. If astronauts are exposed to the intense radiation from solar storms while traveling beyond the protective magnetic field of the Earth, they could suffer serious harm. Even astronauts close to home who venture out for a spacewalk during a storm are put in danger.

“For future missions going to the moon and Mars, that’s very important,” Kaiser said. “Some of these solar storms can be very intense. If the astronauts were completely exposed to one of these storms the radiation could be high.”

The STEREO mission also aims to improve our basic scientific understanding of the dynamics within the sun, which could shed light on the workings of stars in general.

By Clara Moskowitz

See Full Article here:

http://www.wired.com/wiredscience/2009/01/stereosun/

 

PS: Do you like the auto music or not? I do and I don’t, but you can, as a visitor turn it off. Let me know.

Much love.

Sindy